Individuals with AUD are often deficient in one or more essential nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, folate, and thiamine (Hoyumpa 1986). These micronutrients have been shown to play an important role in immune system homeostasis and response to infection (Mora, Iwata et al. 2008). The white blood cells, tissues and organs that make up our body’s immune system https://ecosoberhouse.com/ are designed to fight off infections, disease and toxins. To this end, heavy drinkers have been shown to exhibit an increase in both IgA and IgM levels when compared to both moderate and light male drinkers. Within the GI tract, alcohol exposure can also alter the number and abundance of microorganisms present within the microbiome, all of which play an important role in normal GI function.
- The higher the viral load of the set point, the faster infection will progress to full-blown AIDS.
- Alcohol’s effects on cell membranes and metabolism are possible explanations for the increased risk, but so is alcohol’s ability to interfere in the maturing of macrophages.
- By illuminating the key events and mechanisms of alcohol-induced immune activation or suppression, research is yielding deeper insights into alcohol’s highly variable and sometimes paradoxical influences on immune function.
- These membranes line the body cavities exposed to the external environment (e.g., the GI tract, respiratory tract, nostrils, mouth, or eyelids) and therefore are likely to come in contact with outside pathogens.
- Several studies have demonstrated the dose-dependent effect that alcohol has on preventing both monocytes and macrophages from binding to the bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Significant differences between the immune system of the mouse—the primary model organism used in immune studies—and that of humans also complicate the translation of experimental results from these animals to humans. Moreover, the wide-ranging roles of the immune system present significant challenges for designing interventions that target immune pathways without producing undesirable side effects. Alcohol consumption does not have to be chronic to have negative health consequences. In fact, research shows that acute binge drinking also affects the immune system. There is evidence in a number of physiological systems that binge alcohol intake complicates recovery from physical trauma (see the article by Hammer and colleagues).
Long-term effects of alcohol misuse
In addition, oxidation of ethanol by CYP2E1 leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Elevated levels of ROS cause oxidative stress which has been shown to play a role in several harmful processes including cancer development, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and inflammation (Tuma and Casey 2003). Lauren Manaker, M.S., RDN, LD, a registered dietitian based in Charleston, South Carolina, says acetaldehyde is one of these harmful toxins produced from alcohol metabolism. According to a 2023 study in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, other harmful, alcohol-related compounds include cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species.
- Cirrhosis, on the other hand, is irreversible and likely to lead to liver failure despite abstinence from alcohol, according to Dr. Menon.
- “Drinking alcohol in large quantities even just for a short period of time — like binge drinking — can be bad for your health and your immune system,” says Favini.
- Alcohol disrupts ciliary function in the upper airways, impairs the function of immune cells (i.e., alveolar macrophages and neutrophils), and weakens the barrier function of the epithelia in the lower airways (see the article by Simet and Sisson).
One of the most significant immediate effects of alcohol is that it affects the structure and integrity of the GI tract. For example, alcohol alters the numbers and relative abundances of microbes in the gut microbiome (see the article by Engen and colleagues), an extensive community of microorganisms in the intestine that aid in normal gut function. Alcohol disrupts communication between these organisms and the intestinal immune system. Alcohol does alcohol weaken your immune system consumption also damages epithelial cells, T cells, and neutrophils in the GI system, disrupting gut barrier function and facilitating leakage of microbes into the circulation (see the article by Hammer and colleagues). Although most research has focused on the effects of heavy alcohol consumption on the immune system, several studies have also confirmed that even moderate consumption can have significant effects on the immune system.
Alcohol’s Effect on Host Defense
In addition to its adverse effects on GI functioning, the impact of alcohol on the GI microbiome can also alter the maturation and functions of the immune system. The adaptive immune system can be further subdivided into cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity. Whereas T-cells are primarily involved with cell-mediated immunity, B-cells play a major role in humoral immunity. “Drinking alcohol in large quantities even just for a short period of time — like binge drinking — can be bad for your health and your immune system,” says Favini. Healthy habits, such as being active, eating a balanced diet, and getting enough sleep, can keep your immune system strong.